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China High-Speed TrainThe China’s high-speed railway infrastructure began with the construction of Qinhuangdao-Shenyang special line for passenger transport in 1999, and this is China’s first high-speed railway with a design speed 250 kilometers per hour. Over the decades of years’ large-scale development, extension and upgrading, currently, China takes possession of the largest and fastest high-speed railway network as well as the most advanced high-speed railway constructive technology throughout the world. It has deeply influenced on Chinese people’s traditional life and China’s layout and strategy of economic development. Thanks to the considerable achievement of China in the aspect of High-Speed Railway Construction, Daily life of Chinese people is vividly featured of the unprecedented convenience. By the end of 2010, the number of railways with a high speed exceeding 200 kilometers per hour is over 8300. Additionally, the total mileage of Chinese constructed railways and railways under the construction for passenger transport and inter-city traffics is over 17,000 kilometers. According to the blueprint of China’s mid-term and long-term railway construction, up to 2012, China will own 42 high-speed railways for passenger transport, and then the basic framework of China high-speed railway will be shaped. The total mileage will be 1, 3000 kilometers. Up to 2020, the total length of high-speed railways with a speed over 200 kilometers per hour will be 50, 000 kilometers. The advantages of high-speed railways are obviously shown in the aspect of shortening the journey, facilitating the life and improving the efficiency. In traveling, the most direct merit is visiting more and experiencing more in a certain time, and it can bring the tourists more amazement and less waste of time. Moreover, taking the high-speed train itself is a unique enjoyment as well.
Development History of China’s High-Speed Railway

China’s development in the realm of high-speed railway is later than those developed countries for 20 or 30 years. Since the extraordinary development of high-speed railway in the world in 21st century, China was aware of the importance and significance of developing high-speed railway. In 1990, China began designing the Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway, and in the same year, the Ministry of Railways completed the Report of Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway Blueprint and submitted it to National People’s Congress. This was China’s first preparation for high-speed railway development.

In 1998, the electrization upgrading of Guangzhou-Shenzhen Railway was completed in advance and the design speed was 200 kilometers per hour. For testing the feasibility of speeding up Chinese railway to the designed standard, the local authorities rented an X2000 high-speed train from Sweden. The whole rail was installed with the internationally advanced equipments as well. Hence, the refinement of Guangzhou-Shenzhen railway is considered to be the beginning of China entering the period of high-speed railway. In June, 1998, a new-pattern electric locomotive was used in the test of Beijing-Guangzhou Railway and the speed was up to 240 kilometers per hour and broke the record of train speed in history. And this locomotive named Shaoshan-8 was considered as the first high-speed locomotive of China. 

China High-Speed Train Beijing-Tianjin Inter-city Railway is another representative of early development of China high-speed railway. Compared to the ordinary train, the high-speed train or bullet train takes advantages of larger capacity, higher speed and better transport efficiency. Meanwhile, the main problem that China’s high-speed railway faces is the low speed, the deficiency of capacity and less modernization. So, the large-scale railway construction was highly emphasized. During the ninth Five-Year Scheme of China from 1996 to 2000, the speed of China railway was improved for three times. And The Ministry of Railways shaped the plan of speeding up the trains. In this plan, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou were selected as the centers to connect the railways of different cities, and the total length of the railway was up to 16, 000 kilometers. What’s more, the highest speed of the passenger bullet trains was over 200 kilometers per hour. This largely changed the traditional situation of China railway network. During this phase, the CRH,China Railway High-Speed, of DJJ2 with a speed of 270km/h was in the process of development. China’s first real high-speed railway was the Qinhuangdao-Shenyang special passenger line completed in 2002, which had a design speed of 200-250 kilometers per hour. By the way, the electric locomotive named Zhong Hua Zhi Xing(中华之星,Star of China) created the fastest speed in this railway with 321.5 kilometers per hour.

In January 2004, State Council of China approved China’s first Plan of Middle and Long-Term Railway Network and officially declared to build a special passenger transport railway network with a total mileage over 12, 000 kilometers, and the targeted speed of the train is and above 200 kilometers per hour. Besides, three large inter-city passenger transport networks,which were Around Bohai Region, Yangtze River Delta Region and Pearl River Delta Region, were also under the construction. Also, a large batch of high-speed railways was also under the construction like Wenzhou-Fuzhou High-Speed Rail, Hefei-Nanjing High-Speed Rail, Wuhan-Guangzhou Passenger Transport High-Speed Rail and Beijing-Tianjin Inter-city High-Speed Rail and so on.

In 2007, China railway experienced the sixth huge speed upgrade. China firstly in the main railways like Beijing-Harbin Railway, Beijing-Guangzhou Railway, Beijing-Shanghai Railway, Beijing-Jiulong Railway and Jiaoji Railway launched the large scale of speed upgrade, and the average speed was up to 200-250 kilometers per hour. These upgrades directly promoted China to reach the internationally advanced technology. In August, 2008, China initially designed a high-speed railway with 350 kilometers per hour---Beijing-Tianjin Inter-city Railway.
Currently, China’s high-speed railway network has been vividly shaped and many high-speed railways have played a key role in people’s life. Chinese people’s reliance to high-speed train becomes more and more obvious. The representatives of China’s high-speed railway are Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway, Shanghai-Hangzhou High-Speed Railway, Shanghai-Nanjing High-Speed Railway and Beijing-Tianjin Inter-city High-Speed Railway.


China’s High-Speed Railway Network

China High-Speed Railway Network Map by 2020

China's High-Speed Railway Network Map by 2020,  and click the image above, a more specific and larger map of China HSR Network in Chinese will be available

The Mid-Term Railway Network Plan: Five Verticals, Six Horizontals and Eight Integrated Lines

From 2010 to 2040, the major destinations of China will be interlinked and finally formed a national railway network in the 30 years’ development. Considering the reality, the railway lines will be featured of the dense east and sparse west. For giving more benefits to the west, the railways stations in west will be more than they in east. All the railway lines except Beijing-Guangzhou Railway and Beijing-Shanghai Railway will be supported for Maglev trains.

Five Verticals are Harbin-Shanghai High-Speed Railway, Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway, Beijing-Hong Kong High-Speed Railway, Jining-Kunming High-Speed Railway and Xian-Zhanjiang High-Speed Railway.
Six Horizontals are Shenyang-Lanzhou High-Speed Railway, Qingdao-Yinchuan High-Speed Railway, Yancheng-Xining High-Speed Railway, Shanghai-Chengdu High-Speed Railway, Shanghai-Kunming High-Speed Railway and Shanghai-Nanning High-Speed Railway.
Eight Integrated Lines are Tianjin-Tangshan High-Speed Railway, Kaifen-Hekou High-Speed Railway, Nanjing-Nantong High-Speed Railway, Nanjing-Ningbo High-Speed Railway, Jinhua-Wenzhou High-Speed Railway, Wuhan-Fuzhou High-Speed Railway, Nanping-Xiamen High-Speed Railway and Hengyang-Nanning High-Speed Railway.

The Long-Term Railway Network Plan: Eight Horizontals  

From 2040 to 2070, eight horizontal high-speed railways will be constructed, and by the end of 2100, all will be absolutely completed. All major cities and travel destinations will be linked together. The lines include: New Harbin—Shanghai High-Speed Railway, Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway, Beijing-Heihe High-Speed Railway, Jinan-Maoming High-Speed Railway, New Jining-Kunming High-Speed Railway, Xuzhou-Sanya High-Speed Railway, Taiyuan-Wenzhou High-Speed Railway and Baotou-Zhanjing High-Speed Railway.

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